An Encyclopedia of A-Z Problems of Human Life and their Solutions by Dr. Jonah

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Some Relevant Math Terms from A to Z and Their Meaning

TERM

MEANING

Absolute Value

Distance between a number and 0 on number line

Abundant Number

A number smaller than the sum of its divisors

Algebra

A branch of math where letters represent numbers

Algorithm

A step by step procedure to solve a problem

Annulus

Region between 2 concentric circles

Arithmetic

A branch of mathematics involving number calculations. It includes addition, subtraction, multiplication & division.

Attribute

A characteristic showing shape, size or color

Axiom

Something accepted as true without any proof

Bar Graph

Vertical or horizontal bars that represent data

Bar Notation

Method of recording recurring decimals

Base

Bottom of a figure or object

Binary System

Number system using base number 2. Digits 0 & 1 are used to express each number.

Bisect

Dividing into 2 equal parts

Braces

{ } symbols that refer to sets

Calculus

A branch of math dealing with integrals, derivatives & rates of change

Cardinal Numbers

Number of elements in finite/infinite sets

Centroid 

The point where the 3 medians of a triangle intersect

Chord

An interior line joining 2 points on circle circumference

Circumference

Distance around a circle

Coefficient

A number that multiplies a letter (variable)

Collinear Points

3 or 4 points lying on the same straight line

Composite Number

Number having factors other than 1 and itself

Congruent

Possessing same size and same shape

Decagon

Polygon with 10 sides

Decahedron

A three dimensional shape having 10 plane faces

Deficient Number

Any number larger than the sum of its divisors

Denominator

Bottom number of a fraction

Discrete Data

Data with finite or limited value

Divisor

The dividing number

Element

An item or member in a set

Ellipse

A stretched or flattened circle

Equiangular

All angles are equal

Equilateral Triangle

A triangle having 3 equal sides and angles

Even Number

Any number that can be divided by 2 like  4, 10, 16

Exponent

A tiny number to upper right of base number denoting the times the base number should multiply by itself.

Expression

Symbol referring to a number or variable

Extremum

It is extreme value of a function

Factor

A number dividing into another number exactly

Figure

Two dimensional shape

Finite

Which can be counted to a limit

Formula

An equation stating a rule

Fortnight

14 days or 2 weeks

Fraction

A section of  a number  

Frequency

Occurring repeatedly

Function

The relationship between 2 variables

Gallon

Equals 3.78 litters

Geometry

A study of angles, curves and lines in 2 & 3 dimensions

Googol

1 followed by 100 zeros or 10 raised to 100th power

Googolplex

Largest number with a name. Its value is 10 raised to googol power

Greatest Common Factor (GCF)

Greatest number that divides two or more other numbers exactly. GCF for 12, 18 & 24 is 6.

Gross Mass

Includes product & container

Gross Profit

All the money that was received

Half-Life

Amount of time taken for a substance to diminish by half. Half life of isotope carbon-14 is 5730 years.  

Hectare

10, 000 square metres

Hectometre

100 metres

Heptagon

Polygon with 7 sides

Hexagon

Polygon with 6 sides

Hypotenuse

Longest side of a right angled triangle

Icosahedron

Polyhedron with 20 faces

Improper Fraction

A fraction where the numerator is equal or greater than its denominator like 6/4

Index

Exponent

Infinite

Unlimited number or number without an end

Integers

All negative & positive whole numbers and zero too

Isometric

Containing equal measurements

Isosceles Triangle

Triangle with 2 equal sides and angles

Jointly Proportional

1 variable directly proportional to other variables one at a time

Jump Strategy

To make a calculation, a jump is made along an empty number line by 10s and 1s

Kilogram

Equals 1000 grams

Kilometre

Equals 1000 metres

Least Common Denominator

Smallest whole number used as denominator for two or more fractions

Lemma

A stepping stone for proof of a theorem

Linear

Referring to a straight line

Locus

A set of points forming a geometric figure

Logarithm

It is a power to which a base should be raised to achieve a desired number

Mathematics (Math/Maths)

Study of various calculations, numbers, quantities, shapes and space using symbols, equations and formulae.

Matrix

A rectangular array of numbers written in parenthesis/brackets

Mean

Average

Median

The middle number in a series of numbers

Minor Arc

The smaller curve of a circle when it is divided into 2 curves

Mixed Number

A whole number with a fraction like 7 1/2

Mode

Numbers occurring most frequently in a list

Monomial

A single term in algebraic expression

Natural Numbers

Regular numbers that are counted

Negative Integer

A number less than zero but not a decimal or fraction

Nonagon

Polygon with 9 sides

Number Sentence

Math sentence using only symbols and numbers

Numeral

Symbol referring to a number

Numerator

Any number above fraction line

Obtuse Angle

Angle between 90 degrees and 180 degrees

Obtuse Triangle

A triangle with one obtuse angle at least

Octagon

Polygon with 8 sides

Odd Number

Any number that can’t be divided by 2 like 9, 15

Opposite Numbers

Two same numerals that have opposite signs like +57 and -57

Ordinal

Number referring to order like first, second, third

Outcome

In probability, it refers to one of the possible results

Palindrome Number

Any number that shows same value forwards & backwards like 666, 77477

Parabola

U shaped curve where any point on it is equally distant from a fixed point and a fixed straight line

Pentagon

Polygon with 5 sides

Perfect Number

A number which is equal to sum of its dividing numbers

Pi

Ratio of circumference to diameter of a circle

Polygon

A plane figure with 3 or more sides

Polyhedron

A 3-D object with polygons as its faces

Prime Number

Any number that is divided evenly by 1 and itself like 11, 19

Proper Fraction

A fraction where the numerator is lesser than its denominator like 6/8

Proportion

Equality of 2 ratios

Quadrangle

Polygon with 4 angles

Quadrilateral

Polygon with 4 sides

Quadrillion

1 000 000 000 000 000 (10 raised to 15th power)

Quantitative Data

 Information that can be counted or measured

Quotient

The result of a division problem

Radius

Distance from circumference to center of a circle

Ratio

Relation or comparison between 2 quantities

Ray

A straight line having starting point but no end point

Reciprocals

Two numbers whose product is one

Reflex Angle

An angle that measures between 180 degrees and 360 degrees

Rhombus

Parallelogram having all sides and opposite angles equal

Right angle

Angle measuring 90 degrees

Scalene

A triangle with 3 sides unequal

Set

Group of items that are called elements

Sin

Ratio of length of opposite side to hypotenuse length of a right angled triangle

Skew Lines

Those lines not lying in the same plane in space

Solid

3D shape with length, width & height

Speed

The movement of something over a distance in a given time

Square root

A number that multiplies by itself produces original number

Straight Angle

An angle which measures 180 degrees

Tangent line

A line touching a curve at a point without crossing over

Tangram

A square that is cut into 7 pieces

Term

A number in sequence, or a series, or part of algebraic equation

Tessellation

Different shapes fitting together without any gap

Triangle

Polygon with 3 sides

Trigonometry (Trig)

A study of triangles

Trinomial

Algebraic expression with 3 terms

Unit

A standard quantity like a pound is a unit of weight

Unit Rate

In 2 measurements comparison one of the terms has value of 1

Unlikely

A probability outcome between 0 and 0.5

Value

Numerical amount

Variable

A letter used to represent a number or numbers in equations and expressions

Vector

A quantity which has direction and magnitude (amount). Velocity & force are examples of vector.

Vertex

Corner

Vinculum

Horizontal line over a symbol or symbols

Volume

Amount of space

Whole

Amount in total; all

Whole Number

A number from 0 to infinity

Width

Breadth

x

A symbol referring to unknown quantity in equations

X  

Roman numeral for 10

X-axis

Horizontal axis of a graph

Y-axis

Vertical axis of a graph

Y-intercept

A point where a graph intersects the y-axis

Yard

Equal to 36 inches or 3 feet

Z-intercept

A point where a graph intersects the z-axis

Zero

The number that has no quantity. It is used as place holder. The 0 symbol was invented around 500 AD by Hindu mathematicians and not by Arabs.

Zero Matrix

Where all elements are equal to zero

Zero Vector

A vector with zero magnitude (amount)

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